Never trust anyone: “The French Connection” (1971)

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By Scott Ross

Possibly the last thing of which anyone who knows your humble scribe would accuse him is prudery. Still, like many other writers I prefer to be a bit a bit more restrained, and a great deal less profane, in my published prose, as opposed to my plays (or indeed, my daily life). But to assess the work and personality of the American director William Friedkin means admitting that only one word will do, and it isn’t exactly decorous.

That word, in the demotic and not the literal, sense, is “asshole.”

To be sure, one may be an enormously gifted asshole, yet an asshole nonetheless — the arts are full of them, and if you’ve had anything to do with performance of any kind you’ve doubtless met, and endured, your share. Although seldom one who, as Friedkin does, seems to take positive pride in being an asshole.

There may be other words one can use to call a man who spreads utterly debunkable, not infrequently offensive fabrications as if they were gospel; who deliberately endangers the lives of countless innocent bystanders, not to mention those of his cast and crew, by surreptitiously staging high-speed chases on busy city thoroughfares; who claims specious co-authorship of screenplays he patently did not write; who bullies his actors, publicly and mercilessly when he is not actually and with, due premeditation, causing them excruciating physical pain* (and this is what he does to his friends!); who seldom praises the work of collaborators and who cannot even accept a compliment without simultaneously degrading someone else. There may, as I say, be other words. I am fully persuaded that, in this case, “asshole” is the one that best does the job.

William Friedkin, left, with Hackman and Fernando Rey, the movie's chief villain.

William Friedkin, left, with Hackman and Fernando Rey, the movie’s chief villain.

There were, it seems, numerous assholes on the set of The French Connection aside from its director. Chiefest — because arguably most seminal — was Eddie Egan, the bantam cop upon whose exploits, with his partner Sonny Grosso, Robin Moore based his eponymous book. (A bestseller, moreover, which Friedkin claims not to have been able to follow. I’ve seen my share of “Hurricane Billy”‘s sometimes narratively impenetrable movies, so for once I actually believe one of his claims.**) Neither Egan nor Friedkin wanted Gene Hackman in the movie, and both did their best to make him miserable during a shoot already damn near insupportable due to extreme New York cold. A secondary but not inconsiderable asshole was the veteran stuntman Bill Hickman, although he at least was not on hand as much as Egan.

A fistful of assholes, as it were: Bill Hickman and Eddie Egan in action.

A clutch of assholes, as it were: Bill Hickman and Eddie Egan in action.

It must be admitted that as an actor Egan fulfills his part in the movie as Hackman’s supervisor splendidly, gruff and reasonable in equal measure and with what can only be described as a real New York face with which to decorate a movie largely dependent upon them. Hickman, who memorably jousted with Steve McQueen in the justifiably famous San Francisco car chase in Bullitt, and who doubled for Hackman here, likewise fires his small but telling role as snarling adversary with unlovable panache.

The iconic, if surprise-killing, poster.

The famous (if surprise-killing) poster.

Much of the criticism that was leveled at The French Connection centered on the unrepentant boorishness of the Egan character, called “Popeye” Doyle here. (“Popeye” was Egan’s nickname in life, just as Grosso, immortalized by the great Roy Scheider, was known as “Cloudy,” his appellation in the movie.) There were similar complaints about Dirty Harry that same year, some of them notably made by Pauline Kael, who loathed both characters. But aside from their doing the job of big-city police detectives with ruthless, indeed amoral, attitudes, and bearing in mind Orson Welles’ useful maxim that “The job of a policeman is only easy in a police state,” the similarity ends here. The creeping fascism of Clint Eastwood’s Harry Callahan is sanctimonious, a way for the actor to hector the audience for its reliance on those deplorable shades of grey with which artists (and other less emotionally retarded adults) view humanity. “Popeye” doesn’t pause to lecture. He’s far too busy painstakingly ferreting out drug dealers. And anyway, he wouldn’t if he could. Also, his flaws are obvious: Pervasive bigotry, a willingness to cut corners — which may have led to all those light and suspended sentences the movie’s end titles inform us were meted out in the case — and a temper that, combined with zealousness, leads to needless death. (Even some cops were troubled by Popeye’s killing of the admittedly terrifying assassin played by Marcel Bozuffi, whose death gave the movie both its poster image and its most resounding success with theatre audiences.)

What really sets The French Connection apart, then and now and from first frame to last, is Friedkin’s documentary realism. As with Midnight Cowboy (and, on the comic side, The Out-of-Towners) the city itself becomes, not merely a backdrop, but a major character — and not a pretty one. Squalid, hostile, dangerous, more than vaguely threatening, it’s the image of New York in the ’70s most of us who grew up then still associate with that period. On my first trip to Manhattan in December of 1979, I found the city unsettlingly like the one depicted here by Friedkin and his prodigiously gifted cinematographer, Owen Roizman. (It didn’t help that my visit was in winter.) I doubt the city’s Tourist Bureau was best pleased, but if ever there were a time-capsule New York movie, it’s this one.

The movie’s producer, Philip D’Antoni, likewise produced Bullitt, and wanted an urban chase, not merely to equal that one, but to surpass it. However one may deplore Friedkin’s ill-conceived and arrogant methods, D’Antoni certainly got what he was after. And here is as good a place as any to acknowledge the movie’s superb editing by Gerald B. Greenberg.

The dangers of ad hoc car-chases: The auto smashing into Hackman's here was driven by a "civilian," the accident entirely un-planned.

The dangers of ad hoc car-chases: The auto smashing into Hackman’s here was driven by a “civilian,” the accident entirely un-planned.

The spare, effective score, which begins with an astonishingly electric, if brief, main title, was by the late Don Ellis, most of whose compositions were later removed. Loath as I am to side with Friedkin on the matter of film music (he infamously tossed Lalo Schifrin’s score for The Exorcist in favor of some notably hideous screechings by the like of Webern and Penderecki) he may have had a point here; too much underscoring could well have detracted from the admittedly effective cinéma vérité style of the movie as a whole, although I think Ellis’ dissonant approach compliments, rather than distracts from, the action, at least as it ended up in theatres.

The supporting cast is equally splendid, from Egan, Hickman and Bozuffi to Tony Lo Bianco as the minor hood hoping to join the majors and Patrick McDermott’s portrayal of a chillingly cavalier drug analyst. Fernando Rey, although Spanish (and according to Friedkin, anyway, not the actor he had in mind) lends the movie an unexpected whiff of Continental elegance, never more so than at the climax of his cat-and-mouse subway game with Hackman.

Fernando Rey waves a smirking goodbye to Popeye on the subway...

Fernando Rey waves a smirking goodbye to Popeye on the subway…

... which Doyle returns, with heavy irony, at the climax.

… which Doyle returns, with heavy and satisfying irony, at the climax.

 

 

 

 

 

 

As Doyle, Hackman is so wholly persuasive you’d never imagine the actor was, ethically and temperamentally, the diametric opposite of Popeye. The accent may be indeterminate, but Hackman’s is a performance of breathtaking pitilessness, unhampered by anything approaching vanity. Scheider’s “Cloudy” Russo is a star-making performance if ever there was one. Gentler in aspect despite his rough-hewn face, he is in some sense not merely Doyle’s histrionic opposite but the audience’s surrogate as well, amused and appalled by his partner in equal measure. (Note Scheider’s barely-hidden hilarity when Popeye goes into his patented non-sequitor “You ever been to Poughkeepsie?” spiel. Grosso, in the field, was, he says, less charmed.) Scheider essentially played Russo again two years later, in the D’Antoni-produced The Seven-Ups, which also starred Lo Bianoco and which likewise climaxed with a notably harrowing automobile chase.

Roy Scheider and Gene Hackman get more than they imagined when they "popeye" around at an area nightclub.

Roy Scheider and Gene Hackman get more than they imagined when they “popeye” around at an area nightclub.

There are, it must be said, no notable black faces among the law enforcement figures depicted in The French Connecton, but plenty in the drug-bars Popeye and Cloudy invade, yet we twice see Hackman charming (and, at least on the surface, being charmed by) small black and Hispanic children. An early, and key, exchange between Hackman and Scheider, which occurs after the latter has been knifed during an arrest, hints past Doyle’s blatant racism, to his essential misanthropy:

“Popeye”: You dumb guinea.
“Cloudy”: How the hell was I supposed to know he had a knife?
“Popeye”: Never trust a nigger.
“Cloudy”: He could have been white.
“Popeye”: Never trust anyone.

Spoken like a true asshole.

"Now I'm gonna bust your ass for those three bags... and I'm gonna nail you for picking your feet in Poughkeepsie."

“Now I’m gonna bust your ass for those three bags… and I’m gonna nail you for picking your feet in Poughkeepsie.”

*Ellen Burstyn, during the filming of The Exorcist. The damage to her back, deliberately precipitated by Friedkin to elicit a “better” emotional response than she was giving, is now chronic.

**Friedkin is so anti-writer that it’s difficult to get a handle on who wrote the actual screenplay. It’s credited to Ernest Tidyman, another major asshole.

Text copyright 2014 by Scott Ross

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2 thoughts on “Never trust anyone: “The French Connection” (1971)

  1. In the 70s I knew a camera operator on French Connection and he was horrified at what they did in that chase. He told stories that were actually… shocking. I know that word is overused, but this is the case.
    “Now I’m gonna bust your ass for those three bags” was a line delivered to Alan Weeks (a playwright and director who is also in Tidyman’s SHAFT and Alan Sherman’s THE FIG LEAVES ARE FALLING). I knew Weeks casually in the mid 80s. He said that Hackman kept blowing the scene because he liked Alan too much to be rough with him. He pleaded with Hackman to just bounce him around good because It was a hard scene to do over and over. After a long while, Hackman got through one without laughing or holding back. “[T]he diametric opposite of Popeye”? You bet!
    Hey, I really enjoy the sequel! There, the big chase is on foot. But it is shot like a car chase. I know that film is reviled but I like it for many reasons.

    • Thanks for those anecdotes, Eliot. I also like the sequel, which I saw when it was first released (the day after “F.C.” premiered on network television.) I couldn’t find a place in the review above to mention it, and I know many hate it, but I thought John Frankenheimer did a nice job with it. I hope to get to it again, and will write about it then. It certainly had an arresting and darkly ironic central premise, although one can argue that the finale, while satisfying, is both in line with the character of Doyle in the first movie, and rather fascistic in itself.

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